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VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH Examples in Excel

VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH in Excel (Power Functions)

VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH formulas are among the most powerful functions in Excel. Lookup formulas come in handy whenever you want to have Excel automatically return the price, product ID, address, or some other associated value from a table based on some lookup value. The VLOOKUP function can be used when the lookup value is in the left column of your table or when you want to return the last value in a column. The INDEX and MATCH functions can be used in combination to do the same thing, but provide greater flexibility without some of the limitations of VLOOKUP. I'll also mention LOOKUP and CHOOSE and EXACT and ISBLANK and ISNUMBER and ISTEXT and ... 🙂, but this article is mainly about VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH.

To see these examples in action, download the Excel file below.

Do you have a VLOOKUP or INDEX-MATCH challenge you need to solve? If you can't figure it out after reading this article, go ahead and ask your question by commenting below.

1) Simple VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH Examples


First, here is an example of the VLOOKUP function using a simple Price List Table. We're looking for the text "a_003" within the Item ID column and wanting to return the corresponding value from the Price column.

Excel VLOOKUP Function Example


How it works: The table_array argument is a range that must have the lookup column on the left. The price column is the 3rd column in the highlighted range, so that is why the col_index_num argument is 3 in our example. We use FALSE for the final argument because we want VLOOKUP to do an exact match.

NOTES Actually, this lookup is not truly "exact" because both VLOOKUP and MATCH are not case-sensitive, but the syntax tooltip in Excel calls the option an "exact match" so we'll just accept that and explain how to do a case-sensitive match later.

If you later insert a column in the middle of your table_array, the Price column might not be column 3 any more. To prevent your VLOOKUP formula from breaking, in place of the 3 in the example, you can use (COLUMN($E$30)-COLUMN($C$30)+1).

The default for VLOOKUP is not an exact match, so don't forget to include FALSE as the 4th argument if you want an exact match.


Next, you'll see that the INDEX-MATCH formula is just as simple:

Excel INDEX-MATCH Function Example


How it works: The MATCH function returns the position number 3 because "a_003" matches the 3rd row in the Item ID range. Next, INDEX(result_range,3) returns the 3rd value in the price list range.

The INDEX-MATCH formula is an example of a simple nested function where we use the result from the MATCH function as one of the arguments for the INDEX function. The example below shows this being done in two separate steps.

How the INDEX-MATCH Function Works

Syntax and Notes for MATCH and INDEX

MATCH returns the position number of a matched value within the lookup range.


NOTES When using MATCH, the lookup_range can be a row or column, but if lookup_range is more than one row or column, MATCH will return an error.

MATCH returns the #N/A error when it does not find a match.

The match_type is optional, but the default is not 0. So, it is is best to always specify the match type.

INDEX returns a value from an array based on a row and column number.


NOTES You don't need to include the optional column_number if the array is a single column.

The optional area_number argument is only used for 3D arrays.

If your array is a row, don't use the shortcut =INDEX(array,column_number) because that may not be compatible with other spreadsheet software. Use =INDEX(array,1,column_number) instead.

Purchase Order with Price List LookupPurchase Order with Price List

See INDEX-MATCH in action. In this template, you choose an Item Description from a drop-down list, then lookup formulas display the Item # and the Unit Price for that item.

2) Use Wildcard Characters (?, *) for Partial Matches with VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH

Wildcard characters can be used within the lookup_value for both VLOOKUP and MATCH formulas when the lookup is text and you are doing an exact match.

Using Wildcard Characters in VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH

* (asterisk) matches any number of characters. For example, use "*200" to find the first value ending in 200.

? (question mark) matches any single character. For example, use "A?C*" to find the first value where "A" is the first character and "C" is the 3rd character. The second character can be anything, but only a single character.

~ (tilde) is used in front of a wildcard character to treat it as a literal character. In the 3rd example, we use "*~?*" to find the first occurrence of a product that contains an actual question mark.

3) Return Approximate Matches Using VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH

The following examples show how to use VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH to return approximate matches with numerical lookup data. Important: When using an "Approximate Match" with VLOOKUP (where the 4th argument = TRUE) and a "Less than" match with MATCH (where the 3rd argument = 1), the lookup range needs to be sorted in ascending order.

These formulas look for the largest value that is less than or equal to the lookup value.


Example 1: Return a Grade based on Percent

Lookup Grades Using VLOOKUP

► See this in action: Download the Grade book Template

Example 2: Return a Discount Rate based on Quantity

Discount Rate Lookup Using INDEX-MATCH

Example 3: Return a Tax Rate based on Income

Tax Rate Lookup Using VLOOKUP

► See this in action: Download the Paycheck Calculator

CAUTION For an approximate match, these formulas use a very efficient search algorithm that assumes the lookup range is sorted in ascending order. If your data is not sorted, they don't return an error value, but the result may be unpredictable.

If the lookup value is less than the first value in the lookup range, MATCH and VLOOKUP will return an error.


In this example, we'll do a mileage lookup between two cities. The formulas are basically the same as for a 1D lookup, except that we use a MATCH function to replace col_index_num in the VLOOKUP function and to replace column_number in the INDEX function.



=VLOOKUP(row_lookup_value,table_array, MATCH(column_lookup_value,column_label_range,0), FALSE)


=INDEX( result_array,
MATCH(column_lookup_value,column_label_range,0) )


=HLOOKUP(column_lookup_value,table_array, MATCH(row_lookup_value,row_label_range,0), FALSE)

5) 3D Lookups Using INDEX-MATCH and VLOOKUP

To demonstrate a 3D lookup, we'll use mileage tables again, but this time we have a separate table for Road and Plane. The INDEX function allows you to return a value from a 3D array. You can replace the row_number, column_number, and area_number with 3 MATCH functions.

NOTE The reference argument for the INDEX function should be multiple same-size ranges surrounded by parentheses like this: (A1:D10,E1:H10), or you can use a named range.

=INDEX( (array_range1,array_range2) ,
MATCH(table_lookup_value,{"Road","Plane"},0) )

3D Lookup Using INDEX-MATCH

3D Lookup Using VLOOKUP

It is possible to do a 3D lookup using VLOOKUP. Starting with the 2D lookup formula, in place of array_table, you can use CHOOSE(table_number,table_array_1,table_array_2). You can use MATCH to find the value for table_number as in the INDEX-MATCH example above. The resulting formula would look like this:

=VLOOKUP(row_lookup_value, CHOOSE( MATCH(table_name,{"Road","Plane"},0), road_table_array, plane_table_array), MATCH(column_lookup_value,column_label_range,0), FALSE)

6) Case-Sensitive EXACT Lookup Using INDEX-MATCH

Most lookups and logical comparisons in Excel are NOT case-sensitive, meaning that both "A"="a" and "A"="A" would return TRUE.

The EXACT(value1,value2) function allows you to make a comparison between value1 and value2 that IS case sensitive, so EXACT("A","a") returns FALSE and EXACT("B","B") returns TRUE.

If you use EXACT to compare a value to a range like EXACT("B",A1:A20), the function returns an array of TRUE and FALSE values. You can then use a MATCH function to look for the value TRUE within the range returned by EXACT(lookup_value,lookup_range). The final lookup formula is an Excel Array Formula, so you need to press Ctrl+Shift+Enter after entering the formula.

{Ctrl+Shift+Enter} =INDEX(result_range, MATCH(TRUE,EXACT(lookup_value,lookup_range),0) )

Case-Sensitive EXACT Lookup Using INDEX-MATCH

See the references at the end of this article if you are curious about how a case-sensitive lookup can be done with VLOOKUP.

7) Multiple-Criteria Exact Lookups Using VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH

One way to do an exact-match using multiple criteria is to concatenate the lookup columns and do a lookup using the concatenated lookup values. VLOOKUP requires using a helper column containing the concatenated lookup columns. INDEX-MATCH does not need the helper column, but it becomes an array formula (Ctrl+Shift+Enter).

Multiple-criteria lookup using VLOOKUP and a helper column

VLOOKUP with Multiple Criteria

=VLOOKUP(value_1 & value_2,table_array,col_index_num,FALSE)

Multiple-criteria lookup using INDEX-MATCH as an array formula

INDEX-MATCH with Multiple Criteria

{Ctrl+Shift+Enter}  =INDEX(result_range,MATCH(value1 & value2, lookup_col1 & lookup_col2,0))

8) Lookups with Multiple Non-Exact Criteria Using INDEX-MATCH

When you want to use logical conditions such as A > B or A < B in your lookup, a method I like is to use INDEX-MATCH and convert the lookup_range to a TRUE or FALSE expression like lookup_range<lookup_value. Then search for the first occurrence of TRUE (using 1 as the first argument of the MATCH function). Using this method, you can have any number of conditions because multiplying true/false expressions together acts like the logical AND operator. The formula must be entered as an array formula (Ctrl+Shift+Enter), but that's a small price to pay for relative simplicity.

INDEX-MATCH with Multiple Non-Exact Criteria

{Ctrl+Shift+Enter}  =INDEX(result_range,MATCH(1, (lookup_col1>lookup_value1) * (lookup_col2<lookup_value2) ,0) )

9) Return the Last Numeric Value in a Column

When using an approximate lookup for VLOOKUP and MATCH, you can return the last numeric value in a column if you use an extremely large number as the lookup value (to make sure it will be larger than any number in the lookup range). A common example would be to return the last value in a Balance column for a checkbook register as shown in the example below.

Return the Last Numeric Value in a Column - VLOOKUP

=VLOOKUP( 9E+100, lookup_column, 1, TRUE)

Recall that the TRUE option (for an approximate match) is the default for VLOOKUP, so that is why the formula in the checkbook example image only shows 3 arguments.

This can of course be done with INDEX-MATCH, but I prefer the VLOOKUP formula in this case because it requires only one reference to the lookup column.

=INDEX( lookup_column, MATCH( 9E+99, lookup_column, 1) )

NOTES The lookup_column can contain text values and even errors (like #N/A or #DIV/0), and those values will be ignored. The formula returns only the last numeric value.

10) Return the Last Text Value in a Column

When searching for the last text value, instead of a large numeric value for the lookup_value as in the previous example, use a "large" text value. By that, I mean a text value that would show up last if you sorted a column in alphabetical order. If you are using the English alphabet without special characters, that could be "zzzzzz." If you are using Greek characters or symbols in your list, you could try a Unicode Character such as "🗿" as the lookup value.

=VLOOKUP( "zzzzzzz", lookup_column, 1, TRUE)
=INDEX( lookup_column, MATCH( "🗿", lookup_column, 1) )

Rather than returning the last text value, I often use just the MATCH part of this formula to return the row number of the last value. This allows you to make a dynamic named range that can be used as the source range for a drop-down list via data validation.

11) Return the Last Non-BLANK Value in a Column

If your column contains both text and numeric values, you may want a formula to return the last non-BLANK value. Using the INDEX-MATCH formula, we can search for the last numeric value and the last text value and return whichever comes last.

=INDEX( lookup_column, MAX( MATCH( "zzzzzz", lookup_column, 1), MATCH(9E+100, lookup_column,1) ) )

A more concise formula uses the LOOKUP function. The LOOKUP function allows the lookup_range to be an expression rather than a direct reference (and it can be a row or column). We can use a logical comparison and search for the last TRUE value like this:

Return the Last Non-Blank Value Using LOOKUP

=LOOKUP(42, 1/NOT(ISBLANK(lookup_range)), lookup_range)

The trick here is that the expression 1/NOT(ISBLANK(lookup_range)) returns an array of 1s for TRUE and #DIV/0 errors for FALSE. LOOKUP ignores the error values so it will return the last value in lookup_range that is not blank. The number 42 is arbitrary - it just needs to be larger than 1 to return the last value.

Using very similar formulas, you can use LOOKUP to return just the last numeric value or text value like this:

=LOOKUP( 42, 1/ISNUMBER(lookup_range), result_range)
=LOOKUP( 42, 1/ISTEXT(lookup_range), result_range)

12) Return the Last Non-Empty Value Using LOOKUP

If you are using a formula to return an empty value "" and you want to ignore those cells when searching for the last value in the range, you can use the LOOKUP formula mentioned in the last example with the expression 1/(lookup_range<>"").

Return the Last Non-Empty Value

=LOOKUP(42, 1/(lookup_range<>""), lookup_range)

If you want to return the relative row number instead of the actual value, you can use the following formula:

=LOOKUP(42, 1/(lookup_range<>""), ROW(lookup_range)-ROW(first_cell_in_lookup_range)+1 )


Excel people like to debate about whether VLOOKUP is better than INDEX-MATCH for lookup formulas. The most common argument is that VLOOKUP is simpler and INDEX-MATCH is more powerful. Even though I usually prefer INDEX-MATCH, I think both formulas are pretty simple, and one isn't necessarily always more powerful than the other.

If you want to do more advanced lookups with VLOOKUP, then you'll probably need to learn how to use MATCH and CHOOSE. If you want to become a power Excel user, then you'll also want to learn the INDEX function. So, my opinion on the VLOOKUP vs. INDEX-MATCH debate is to learn how to use them all.

In conclusion, here are some reminders applicable to both VLOOKUP and INDEX-MATCH:

  • Don't forget the FALSE or 0 option if you are wanting an exact match, because the default parameter is to use an approximate match.
  • As a general rule, use absolute ($A$1) cell references to refer to the lookup ranges and table arrays because when you copy the lookup formula you will usually want those ranges to remain the same.
  • Check for extra blank spaces if you think a lookup formula should be finding a match, but it is not.
  • Use IFERROR to handle the error returned when an exact match is not found.


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2 comments… add one
  • I’ve seen MATCH(“*”,range,-1) used to find the last text value. Isn’t that a bit better than using “zzz” or some special character?

    • @Jeremy, Using MATCH(“*”,range,-1) is not a very robust formula for finding the last text value. Text beginning with some characters like !, $, (, or even a leading space will cause the formula to not necessarily find the last text value. That is because when using the -1 value for the 3rd argument (instead of 0 for exact match), an asterisk is not a wildcard – it is treated as the literal * character.


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