How to Create Custom User Defined Excel Functions
Excel allows you to create custom functions, called "User Defined Functions" (UDF's) that can be used the same way you would use SUM() or some other built-in Excel function.
The Excel enthusiast who wishes to use advanced mathematics or perform text manipulation is often seriously disappointed by Excel's limited library of formulas and functions. However, all is not lost!
This article will help you get started with user defined functions and show a couple of cool examples.
How to Create Excel User Defined Functions
- Open up a new workbook.
- Get into VBA (Press Alt+F11)
- Insert a new module (Insert > Module)
- - Copy and Paste the Excel user defined function examples -
- Get out of VBA (Press Alt+Q)
- Use the functions (They will appear in the Paste Function dialog box, Shift+F3, under the "User Defined" category)
If you want to use a UDF in more than one workbook, you can save your functions in your own custom add-in. Simply save your excel file that contains your VBA functions as an add-in file (.xla). Then load the add-in (Tools > Add-Ins...). Warning! Be careful about using custom functions in spreadsheets that you need to share with others. If they don't have your add-in, the functions will not work when they use the spreadsheet.
Benefits of User Defined Excel Functions
- Create a complex or custom math function.
- Simplify formulas that would otherwise be extremely long "mega formulas".
- Diagnostics such as checking cell formats.
- Custom text manipulation.
- Advanced array formulas and matrix functions.
Limitations of UDF's
- Cannot "record" an Excel UDF like you can an Excel macro.
- More limited than regular VBA macros. UDF's cannot alter the structure or format of a worksheet or cell.
- If you call another function or macro from a UDF, the other macro is under the same limitations as the UDF.
- Cannot place a value in a cell other than the cell (or range) containing the formula. In other words, UDF's are meant to be used as "formulas", not necessarily "macros".
- Excel user defined functions in VBA are usually much slower than functions compiled in C++ or FORTRAN.
- Often difficult to track errors.
- If you create an add-in containing your UDF's, you may forget that you have used a custom function, making the file less sharable.
- Adding user defined functions to your workbook will trigger the "macro" flag (a security issue: Tools > Macros > Security...).
User Defined Function Examples
Example #1: Get the Address of a Hyperlink
The following example can be useful when extracting hyperlinks from tables of links that have been copied into Excel, when doing post-processing on Excel web queries, or getting the email address from a list of "mailto:" hyperlinks.
This function is also an example of how to use an optional Excel UDF argument. The syntax for this custom Excel function is:
To see an example of how to work with optional arguments, look up the IsMissing command in Excel's VBA help files (F1).
Function LinkAddress(cell As range, _ Optional default_value As Variant) 'Lists the Hyperlink Address for a Given Cell 'If cell does not contain a hyperlink, return default_value If (cell.range("A1").Hyperlinks.Count <> 1) Then LinkAddress = default_value Else LinkAddress = cell.range("A1").Hyperlinks(1).Address End If End Function
Example #2: Extract the Nth Element From a String
This example shows how to take advantage of some functions available in VBA in order to do some slick text manipulation. What if you had a bunch of telephone numbers in the following format: 1-800-999-9999 and you wanted to pull out just the 3-digit prefix?
This UDF takes as arguments the text string, the number of the element you want to grab (n), and the delimiter as a string (eg. "-"). The syntax for this example user defined function in Excel is:
Example: If B3 contains "1-800-333-4444", and cell C3 contains the formula, =GetElement(B3,3,"-"), C3 will then equal "333". To turn the "333" into a number, you would use =VALUE(GetElement(B3,3,"-")).
Function GetElement(text As Variant, n As Integer, _ delimiter As String) As String 'Returns the nth element from a delimited text string Dim txt, str As String Dim count, i As Integer 'Manipulate a copy of the text string txt = text 'If a space is used as the delimiter, remove extra spaces If delimiter = Chr(32) Then txt = Application.Trim(txt) 'Add a delimiter to the end of the string If Right(txt, 1) <> delimiter Then txt = txt & delimiter End If 'Initialize count and element count = 0 str = "" 'Get each element For i = 1 To Len(txt) If Mid(txt, i, 1) = delimiter Then count = count + 1 If count = n Then GetElement = str Exit Function Else str = "" End If Else str = str & Mid(txt, i, 1) End If Next i GetElement = "" End Function
If that was too complicated, you can also try it the easy way using the single line of code below, which makes use of the Split function.
Function GetElement(text As Variant, n As Integer, _ delimiter As String) As String GetElement = Split(text, delimiter)(n - 1) End Function
Example #3: UDF for a Custom Mathematical Formula
One of the nice things about custom Excel functions is that you can simplify Excel formulas that would otherwise use nested If...Then... statements. As an example, let's say we have a simple function that includes division, but the formula changes when the divisor is zero. Also, we want to do some error checking, so we don't end up with #VALUE all over our spreadsheet.
For this example, we'll look at the KEI formula (Keyword Effectiveness Index), which when simplified looks something like this when using built-in Excel functions:
The syntax for the custom user defined function is:
Function KEI(demand As Variant, supply As Variant, _ Optional default_value As Variant) As Variant 'Keyword Effectiveness Index (KEI) If IsMissing(default_value) Then default_value = "n/a" End If If IsNumeric(demand) And IsNumeric(supply) Then If supply = 0 Then KEI = demand ^ 2 Exit Function Else KEI = demand ^ 2 / supply Exit Function End If End If KEI = default_value End Function
More Custom Excel Function Examples
For an excellent explanation of pretty much everything you need to know to create your own custom Excel function, I would recommend John Walkenbach's book, Excel 200X Formulas. The book provides many good user defined function examples, so if you like to learn by example, it is a great resource.
- Rounding Significant Figures in Excel :: Shows how to return #NUM and #N/A error values.
- User Defined Function Examples - www.ozgrid.com - Examples of user defined functions or UDF's for Excel written in VBA. Random numbers, Hyperlinks, count sum or sort by colors.
- UDF Examples and Tips - www.exceltip.com - Writing Your First VBA Function in Excel. Area of a rectangle (perhaps a little too simple), fuel consumption, and other info about UDF's.
- Build an Excel Add-In - http://www.fontstuff.com/vba/vbatut03.htm - An excellent tutorial that takes you through building an add-in for a custom excel function.